Biol 5 Variation Essay Typer


)eiosis%uring )eiosis two crucial stages occur that cause variation within organisms these are + crossing over and independent assortment.,ndependent assortment occurs during metaphase -. When the chromosomes align in pairs at the e'uator or the cell spindle fibres attach to the centromere and depending on whether the chromosome is on the left or right of the e'uator they will be pulled to either side by the spindle fibres. The way they line up in pairs is entirely random and conse'uently impacts which side of the cell they end up on before division. This is entirely random and causes genetic variation within gametes.When paternal and maternal homologous chromosomes are oined in a bivalent chiasma can form. This is a point in which crossing over occurs between the chromosomes + multien/ymecomplexes cut and oin %!* to different homologous chromosomes 0paternal and maternal1.Crossing over and independent assortment causes many different possible combinations of alleles from mother and father to be formed and is the main cause of variation within offspring. *s explained before when advantageous alleles caused by mutation that are inherited this  process is called reproductive success. 2eproductive success will increase the allelic fre'uency of the allele within the population of a species as those will have the advantage and more li#ely to survive passing on the advantageous allele ,t is necessary because the species will become better adapted to its environment and will have a competitive advantage in increasing its chance of survival against other species. 3y a process of elimination or by natural selection only the best adapted will survive.*n example of nature reducing competition between species is with algae. %ifferent species of algae have adapted to photosynthesis using different wavelengths of light and there can survive at different depths. The competition for light is massively reduced.Speciation can occur when a species is divide e.g. by geographical isolation such as a river. Speciation is the evolution of a new species form an existing one it occurs due to conditions such as temperature food sources etc. are different in the two different places. This means different alleles will be advantageous for the species and so by reproductive success the allelic fre'uencies of the two populations will change. "ver time this results in the two  populations being so different that they can no longer interbreed and can therefore no longer  be classed as one species. ,n this way evolution occurs. This is an example of the effects of variation within species and how it can cause a totally new species to coexist."ne of the main examples of variation in terms of survival can be seen in bacteria and its genetic resistance. *lthough mutation that is advantageous is rare populations of bacteria are so large and reproduce so rapidly that a useful mutation occurs more often than in most other organisms. This is an example of disruptive selection because most of the species is wiped out + however some may contain the mutation of resistance to the antibiotic and so they will survive hence the allele for resistance will be of high fre'uency in the new population.This is why variation within organisms is so important in the sense that if a disease does infect a population there will be few that survive and can continue the species and save it from extinction. ,f there was no variation every organism of the species would die.

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