Jijabai (1594-1674) was the mother of Shivaji, the legendary Maratha king and warrior who stood strong against the rivaling Mughal Empire. Jijabai was born in 1594 in the town of Sindhkhed in Maharashtra. Her father was an eminent Maratha Sardar and nobleman named Lakhuji Jadhavrao, while her mother was Malasa Bai. Her father served the NizamShahi of Ahmednagar and was proud of his high position and status.
Marriage came very early to Jijabai's life, as customary, and she tied the knot with Shahaji Bhosle, who was a spirited warrior and a diplomatic official who also served the Nizam Shah. Shahaji Bhosle was the son of Maloji Shiledar, who later grew in ranks to become 'Sardar Maloji Rao Bhosle'. Although the couple led a happily married life, there was an enmity that brewed amongst the family members. This led to a growing ill-feeling relationship between Shahaji and his father-in-law Jadhav that tore Jijabai apart, having to choose her loyalty between her husband and her father. Her father eventually left the kingdom to join forces with the Mughals of Delhi, against the Nizamshahi and revenge against Shahaji. Jijabai remained with her husband at the Fort of Shivneri, devotedly standing by his side; however, she was disappointed with the fact that both he and her father served under other rulers, while she longed for freedom under a kingdom founded by the Marathas themselves. Together they had eight children, of whom six were daughters and two were sons, Shivaji being one of them. Praying earnestly to the gods for a son who would become an independent ruler of the Maratha clan, her prayer was answered and Shivaji grew up to become the founder of the Maratha Empire.
Jijabai was known to be an influential and determined woman who was an embodiment of self-respect and virtue. Famed for her fore-sight, Jijabai was herself an able warrior and administrator. She passed down her quality traits to the growing Shivaji, and instilled within him a sense of duty, courage and fortitude to overcome any hardship arising. Under her guidance and care, Shivaji developed within him a human touch that saw him harbor a great respect for all women, religious tolerance, and justice, along with the love for his country, his religion and his quest for freedom of Maharashtra. Shivaji owes his greatness to the inspiration of his mother who dedicated her life to bringing up her son to become one of the greatest rulers of the Maratha Empire.
After Jijabai became the queen regent, she moved to Poona to manage her husband's Jagir there, taking Shivaji with her. In 1666 however, Shivaji left for Agra, leaving Jijabai to manage the affairs of the state. Since then, innumerable events in history went on by in Jijabai's life, some good, some tragic and painful, yet she silently bore them. The death of her husband brought her great sorrow. Her eldest son Sambhaji being slain by Afzal Khan, whom Shivaji later avenged with Jijabai's blessings. However, Shivaji's great conquests like his capture of the Fort of Thorangadh, his several gallant escapades with the Mughals, along with the valiant achievements of heroes like Thanaji, Baji Prabhu, Suryaji, who were also inspired by her, brought a unique feeling to her heart as that of a proud mother. Jijabai's dream was fulfilled when she witnessed the coronation of her son, Shivaji, as he ascended the golden throne in 1674, to become leader of the legendary Marathas.
Affectonately known as 'Rajmata', Jijabai died soon after a few days following Shivaji's coronation, in the village of Pachad, at the foot of Fort Raigarh. Her death brought great sorrow to the entire kingdom and more on Shivaji who mourned so deeply. Today, the region of Raigadh is regarded sacred, and its several statues of the Mother Jija with the boy Shivaji, makes it reminiscent of the maternal bonding between two great inspirational figures of Indian history.
Facts and Information about Jijabai
|Original name||Jijabai Bhosale|
|Also known as||Rajmata Jijabai|
|Born||12 January 1598 (Sindkhed Raja, Buldhana District, India)|
|Died||17 June 1674 (aged 76)|
|Children||Two sons and six daughters|
|Husband||Shahaji Bhosale. She supported Shahaji in making a Hindu state on the land which was formerly known as Nizamshahi sultanate.|
|Temple Renovation||The Kasaba Ganapati Temple was renovated by her.|
|Inspired Shivaji||She narrated tales to Shivaji Maharaj from Mahabharata, Balaraja and Ramayana.|
|Death of elder son||Sambhaji, Jijau's elder son, was killed on a military expedition by Afzal Khan.|
|Attempt at Sati||Jijabai attempted to commit sati when Shahaji died.|
|Film||Rajmata Jijau, 2011is a film on the life of Jijabai.|
|Death||She died on 17 June 1674, just after 12 days of Shivaji's coronation. Her Samadhi has been built at Village "Pachad" near Fort Rajgad.|
Last Updated on : February 1, 2014
1. Early years
Jijabai was born to Lakhojiraje Jadhav in Sindkhed territory of Vidharbh, Maharashtra in the year 1598 A.D. She was affectionately called as ‘jiu’. Lakhojiraje Yadav was a Yadava, traditionally the rules of Devgiri. So, Jijau was actually the princess of Devgiri. But Lakhojiraje, along with his three sons accepted to be chieftains in the Sultan’s military. This was something that irked Jijau.
1A. Righteous anger that fuelled Jijabai
Maharashtra was so subjugated that Brahmins would go to the Sultan to settle their disputes like, ‘Who should proffer the offerings in a religious ritual?’ The Sultan’s army would often abduct the wives of the local Kshatriyas, and they would meekly offer bribes to have their wives back. In a state where Brahmins and Kshatriyas had discarded Dharma (righteousness) and valour, nothing much could be expected of the others ! Jijau wold seeth with fury at the manner in which the Hindus were being treated by the invaders. Thus, right from the childhood, she developed an intense hatred towards the invaders who had used every ploy to humiliate Hindus.
2. Post marriage, Jijau’s love for Dharma unites two warring clans against the invaders
2a. Shahaji and Jijau’s intense desire to end the hostilities between the Jadhavs and Bhosales
Jijau got married to the most valorous general of the Sultan’s army, Shahajiraje Bhosale. Thereafter, she lived in Pune. Once, when all the Maratha sardars had come together, an elephant belonging to Khandagle suddenly became violent and went on a rampage. In the ensuing chaos, the Sardars used weapons which wounded the elephant. Unfortunately, this led to a misunderstanding between the Bhosales and the Jadhavs who took up arms against each other. Petty hostilities between the Maratha sardars flared up. Jijau and Shahaji had to witness their near and dear ones die. They earnestly wanted both the families to forgo bitterness of the past and rise above personal ego; put an end to the hostility between the two families and fight the foreign invaders and establish Hindu Kingdom. But the egoistic Maratha Sardars were hardly convinced by the noble thoughts.
2b. Jijau’s patriotic words that force her father to introspect on the petty clashes
The Nizam had sent Lakhojiraje along with his army to Junnar to capture Shahajiraje. As Jijau was pregnant, it was not possible for her to travel to Pune on horseback. So, Shahjiraje placed Jijau under the care of Vishwasrao and Vaidhyaraj Nirgudkar (a doctor) in the Shivneri fort, and proceeded to Pune. Meanwhile Lakhojiraje reached Junnar and met his daughter at Shivneri fort after many years.
Jijau said to her father, ‘Marathas are fighting with each other for sake of mere ego and greed. If their valorous swords unite, foreign invaders will be vanquished in no time. It is a disgrace to be working under invaders for your livelihood, you must give it up’. Jijau’s intense patriotism and love for Dharma touched her father. Her earnest thought compelled Lakhojiraje to introspect. When he met Shahajiraje at the foothills of Shivneri, Lakhojiraje was pacified and that put an end to the hostility between Jadhavs and Bhosales forever.
3. Jijau, who always kept the flame of vengeance burning, through hardship !
3a. Shahajiraje’s sister-in-law abducted by Mahabat Khan
Mahabat Khan, a Mughal general, abducted Godavaribai in broad daylight. Kheloji made no efforts to rescue his wife; but Shahajiraje promptly rescued his sister-in-law Godavaribai from Mahabat Khan and in due course of time killed Mahabat Khan who had fled away.
3b. Nizam deceitfully killing Jijau’s father and three brothers
Nizam called Jijau’s father, Lakhojiraje and her three brothers in his royal court unarmed and killed them deceitfully. This callous event tore Jijau’s heart apart. Her maternal family was ruined, but she did not forgo her yearning for ‘Swaraj’.
3c. Pune destroyed under Adilshah’s orders
On Adilshah’s orders, Rairao attacked Pune (Shahaji’s territory) and burnt it to ashes, committed innumerable atrocities on the common man and killed many, destroyed the fields and houses. Pune, known as ‘Punyabhumi’ was sullied by the marauding forces.
These devastating incidents, occuring one after another, made a deep impact on Jijau who was residing at Shivneri. She was unable to endure this situation and felt like forsaking her life, but she consoled herself, did not lack composure and kept the flame of vengeance burning !
4. Prayers offered by Jijau prior to Shivaji’s birth and her longings during pregnanc
4a. Prayers offered to Bhavanimata
Jijau would ernestly pray to Bhavanimata ‘To destroy the villainous and for the protection of the nation and Dharma, bless me with a son like Shri Ram or a daughter like Goddess Durga who would vanquish the enemies.
4b. Longings during pregnancy
Jijau would feel like wielding a sword, sit on a tiger and slay the enemies. She would often dream of Dharmik war and establishment of Ramrajya.
5. Jijau, an ideal mother who instilled values like patriotism and love for Dharma in Shivaji
Shivaji was born on Vaishakh shukla Paksha Trutiya (1627 A.D.) at Shivneri fort. Right from his childhood, Jijau would tell Shivaji about the lives of Shriram, Maruti, Shrikrishna and also from Mahabharat and Ramayana to make him pious and patriotic. Thus, she moulded him into an ideal ruler by sowing seeds of devotion to the nation and Dharma. She was not only a mother to Shivaji, but also a source of inspiration.
6. Personal Life
6A. How Dharmacharan helped Jijau face difficult situations courageously
When Jijau went to stay in Pune along with Shivaji, she founded Kasbapeth Ganapati temple and renovated the Tambdi Jogeshwari and Kevereshwar temple. Besides being a patron of temples, Jijau listened to bhajan-kirtans by Saints, studied Sanskrut scriptures and religiously performed the vowed religious observances. She was a chaste wife and dutiful mother. Although she was religiously inclined, her devotion was above rituals. She had lot of merit that she gathered by abiding to Dharma in her daily life. This gave her immense strength to face difficult situations.
6B. Her undaunted faith in God blessed her with success
She had a strong faith that she was blessed by Goddess Bhavani and Mahadev. She always backed her valorous husband and son fearlessly and resolutely. When her husband or son would be in perilous situations, she would ardently pray to Bhavanimata night and day, for their protection and safe return. She strongly believed that our efforts bring success to our doorstep only with the grace of God.
6C. An ideal Hindu woman
Jijau played all the roles in her life such as daughter, sister, wife, daughter-in-law, sister-in-law, mother, mother-in-law, grandmother just as the scriptures have mentioned. She was loved and respected by all her family members. She was looked upon as the support system in the family. In all aspects, she was an ideal Hindu woman. Entire Hindu community is grateful to God for having set an example before us in the form of Rajmata Jijau. A prayer unto the divine feet of Bhavanimata and Shambu Mahadev that, ‘May all Hindu women be inspired by Jijau to be ideal women !’
7. Jijau – an ideal Queen Mother !
7A. A warrior par excellence
Jijau was adept in warfare, possessing skills like horse riding, as well as mastery over the sword.
7B. Valorous Ranaragini
7B 1. Jijau, wielding a sword, had decided to declare war against Siddi Jauhar to rescue Shivaji from the encircled fort of Panhala
7B 2. Jijau the inspiration behind Afzal Khan’s slaying : The Mughal commander Afzal Khan had killed Jijau’s elder son, Sambhajiraje in a military expedition of Kanakgiri by firing a cannon deceitfully. Later Afzal Khan set his sights on capturing Shivaji Maharaj. In this endeavour, he was unstoppable; destroying temples, idols of Deities, burning fields and inhumanly murdering people, as he was headed swiftly towards Rajgad. In this situation, if Shivaji Maharaj was to clash with Afzal Khan’s army, the Maratha army’s defeat was inevitable. Also if Shivaji was to meet Afzal Khan to sign a treaty, he would certainly not return. So, Shivaji’s sardars and his learned ministers advised him to move to a safe place, away from Afzal Khan. But, Jijau ordered Shivaji to meet Afzal Khan and slay him and display the Maratha valour to the world.
7D. An efficient administrator
Jijamata would keep a close watch on socio-political affairs of the state and in times of need would efficiently handle the administration.
7D 1. Leading the Marathas who were fighting Shaistakhan : Shivaji Maharaj was trapped for four months when Siddi Jauhar had besieged Panhala fort. Jijau had shouldered the responsibility of Swaraj then. Till Shivaji escaped from the besieged fort, Jijau led the Marathas who were fighting Shaistakhan thus protecting Swaraj.
7D 2. ProtectingSwaraj even in her advanced age : While proceeding to Agra, Shivaji Maharaj entrusted Swaraj in the safe hands of Jijau. Shivaji Maharaj’s imprisonment by Aurangazeb did not deter Jijau. Mughals from South, armies of Adilshah and Kutubshah, British and Portuguese invaders in Konkan and Gomantak (Goa) and vast army of Siddi Jauhar in Murud Janjira all had trained their greedy eyes on the Hindavi Swaraj. Jijau, though aged, protected her people from these enemies for more than 8 months. Beyond this, she accomplished completion of Sindudurg fort, recaptured a fort from the enemies, attended to problems of the subjects and showed her efficiency in governing.
7E. Judicious nature
She promptly delivered justice to her subjects to settle numerous problems related to their family and state administration and well as social, religious and financial issues. She was well versed in scriptures, strong, principled and unbiased and so, she was able to deliver perfect and Dharma abiding justice. As the culprits were duly punished, her subjects looked upon her as a ray of hope and were blessed with Dharmrajya / Ramrajya.
7F. Pillar of swaraj
She never distanced herself from her subjects to enjoy pleasures as Rajmata or Queen mother. She was always a responsible mother of a responsible king. She was the pillar of swaraj.
7G. Excellent political and war advisor
Her decisiveness and perceptive nature was so valuable and par excellence that Shahjiraje and Shivaji Maharaj used to value her opinion while taking major political decision. She was extremely good at planning strategies and war tactics.
7H 1. Singlehandedly bringing up Shivaji in the absence of Shahjiraje : Shahajiraje signed the treaty of Mahul and was compelled to leave Maharashtra and go to Karnataka with his elder son. Although this incident scattered her family and uprooted Swaraj, Jijabai was steady. Jijau stayed back in Maharashtra under the pretext of taking care of Pune and Supe Paraganas given by Adil Shah to Shahjiraje and brought up Shivaji as an ideal son.
7H2. She taught her grandson Sambhaji, Urdu and Persian, to help understand the enemy’s plans and strategies.
7H3. Jijau encouraged Shivaji after the treaty of Purandar and Shivaji restablished Hindavi Swaraj : Shivaji Maharaj lost many of his territories and 23 forts to Raje Jaisingh in the treaty of Purandar, but he had a narrow escape from the clutches of Mughals. He did not let the enemy wreck Swaraj completely. Jijau expressed her amazement over Shivaji’s commendable achievement. Her positive approach encouraged Shivaji and he set about re-establishing swaraj with a renewed enthusiasm.
7I. An ideal queen, whose priority lay in her subjects
As Jijau was Shahjiraje’s wife and Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s mother, she was the queen and Rajmata too. As her prime concern was well-being of her subjects, she always gave priority to her duties as a queen or rajmata rather than just emotional bondages as a wife or a mother.
7I 1. Jijau, the force behind Shivaji’s Hindavi Swaraj : Hindus were oppressed under the barbaric atrocities of the Mughals in north India and the AdilShahs, KutubShahs in south India. Shivaji Maharaj, along with his mavlas was trying to reign in these demons. Shivaji Maharaj was the lone survior among Jijau’ sons and he too had to face many life threatening odds. But that did not deter Jijau who braved all this and blessed Shivaji in all his endeavours.
7I2. Jijau enduring the grief of her husband’s death and contributing to swaraj : Shahjiraje’s death shattered Jijau but she endured it despite her advanced age. She refrained from committing sati for the sake of swaraj. She overcame grief and helped Shivajiraje by guiding him in the administration.
Gratitude and prayer
Barely 12 days after witnessing the golden moment of Shivaji’s coronation Jijau breathed her last in Pajad 1674. She devoted her entire life for swaraj. Obeisance to God for setting a personified example of what an ideal Hindu women should be like, in the form of Rajmata Jijau. ‘Jijamata had multi-faceted qualities like intense yearning, faith, determination, patience, sense of respect towards her Dharma, selflessness, warrior attitude, broad-mindedness, fearlessness, leadership, courage, war strategies, sacrificing attitude as well as a desire for victory. A prayer unto the Divine Feet that may all Hindus develop these abilities.
Source :Dainik Sanatan Prabhat